Prototype Pattern


Specify the kind of objects to create using a prototypical instance, and create new objects by copying this prototype.


The prototype pattern is a creational design pattern in software development. It is used when the type of objects to create is determined by a prototypical instance, which is cloned to produce new objects. This pattern is used to:

  • avoid subclasses of an object creator in the client application, like the abstract factory pattern does.
  • avoid the inherent cost of creating a new object in the standard way (e.g., using the ‘new’ keyword) when it is prohibitively expensive for a given application.

To implement the pattern, declare an abstract base class or interface that specifies a pure virtual clone() method. Any class that needs a “polymorphic constructor” capability derives itself from the abstract base class or interface, and implements the clone() operation.

The client, instead of writing code that invokes the “new” operator on a hard-coded class name, calls the clone() method on the prototype, calls a factory method with a parameter designating the particular concrete derived class desired, or invokes the clone() method through some mechanism provided by another design pattern.


TypeScript Code

module Prototype {
    class Prototype {
        constructor(public name: string, public modified: Date = new Date()) {

        public display() {
            Output.WriteLine("My name is " + + " and a was modified at " + this.modified);

        public clone(): Prototype {
            var cloned = Object.create(Prototype.prototype || null);
            Object.keys(this).map((key: string) => {
                cloned[key] = this[key];

            return cloned;

    window.addEventListener("load", function () {
        var firstOne = new Prototype("First");
        var clone = firstOne.clone();
        clone.display(); = "Norbert"